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Links to individual manuscripts, abstracts, and keywords are provided below.
p.5 Faunal Remains as an Indicator of Change in Social Stratification at Pecica Şanţul Mare
ABSTRACT: The Bronze Age tell settlement of Pecica “Şanţul Mare” in Romania is regarded as a regional center of the Mureş culture due to the flourishing of higher-status activity experienced during the Florescent Period (1820-1680 B.C.). Recent excavations at the site began to examine whether this higher-status activity was present during the Initial Period (1950-1900 B.C.), the earliest period, or if it grew out of the transition between these periods. This analysis compared faunal remains from the Initial Period and the Florescent Period to examine changing inequality over time. Species utilization, cull patterns, and body part representation were used to infer social organization during these periods. The combination of secondary product utilization, low quantity of horse, and presence of low quality meat during the Initial Period suggests that social inequality intensified over time and reached its pinnacle during the Florescent Period. These results can also be used to examine the development of social stratification in the Bronze Age as a whole.
KEYWORDS: Pecica; Zooarchaeology; Social organization; Power and Wealth; Bronze Age; Elite Activity; Horse Breeding; Tell Settlement
p.23 Enhancing Number System Knowledge to Promote Number Sense and Adaptive Expertise: A Case Study of a Second-Grade Mathematics Student
Cami C. Player & Jessica F. Shumway
ABSTRACT: Instruction for developing students’ number sense is a critical area of research in mathematics education due to the role number sense plays in early mathematics learning. Specifically, number system knowledge—systematic relations among numerals and the use of number relations to solve arithmetic problems—has been identified as a key cognitive mechanism in number sense development. Number system knowledge is a component of number sense, and the researchers of this study hypothesize that it plays a critical role in second-grade students’ understanding of relationships among numbers and adaptive expertise with mathematics problems. The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate the variations of an eight-year-old student’s number system knowledge learning as she participated in an instructional treatment over nine weeks. The main research question of this study was: In what ways does a student struggling in mathematics develop number system knowledge during a nine-week period in her second-grade classroom as she engages in a number system knowledge instructional treatment? The case in this study was selected based on her low pretest score combined with her desire for making sense of mathematics. The data sources for this study were a number system knowledge assessment and student interviews. The analysis involved a multiple-cycle coding process that resulted in themes of adaptive expertise and the union of procedural and conceptual knowledge in mathematics instruction. The results suggest that this number system knowledge instructional treatment provided this case-study student to develop more pronounced adaptive expertise in solving mathematics problems. An in-depth analysis of how and why one struggling student develops number system knowledge during a nine-week instructional treatment within the context of her mathematics class provides exploratory evidence to help researchers and teachers develop and implement similar practices in elementary mathematics instruction.
KEYWORDS: Number Sense; Number System Knowledge; Mathematics Education; Whole Numbers and Operations; Elementary Education; Teaching and Learning; Case Study Research
p.35 Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Laminated Wood Structures Using a Homemade Bending Tester
J. Weber & A. J. Stollenwerk
ABSTRACT: The choice of materials used to build a laminate recurve bow is crucial to optimizing performance. To this end, a low-cost bending tester was designed and built to measure the flexural modulus and modulus of rupture on a variety of wooden laminates. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between the properties of the laminates and the individual species comprising the laminates, woods with a wide range of elastic and strength properties were chosen. Differences between the expected and experimental results are attributed to the properties of the adhesive and defects in the wood.
KEYWORDS: bending test; recurve bow; wood; laminates; modulus of rupture; flexural modulus
p.41 College Students’ Well–Being: Use of Counseling Services
ABSTRACT: A significant number of college students experience varying levels of stress, anxiety, homesickness, and depression which may negatively impact their academic performance or personal functioning. However, many college students do not seek professional help from campus counselors. Recent research supports the effectiveness of counseling centers in reducing the effect of stress, anxiety, homesickness, and depression on the students’ well-being. The purpose to the current study was to analyze students’ reports on their levels of stress, anxiety, homesickness, and depression, grouping them based on previous counseling participation. It was hypothesized that those who had gone to counseling or were currently attending counseling would report better overall improvement than those students who had never attended counseling. The following study included college students at a Southeastern university who have attended counseling or were currently attending counseling through the services provided by the University, or from any outside service. A group of students who had never attended counseling previously also participated. The research assessed varying levels of mood and academic performance and any differences between the groups. To gather a broader scope of knowledge, the study investigated demographic information and potential hindrances to treatment. It also focused on any barriers that would impact the likelihood of counseling attendance, and the manner in which students learned about the services offered. It was found that those students who attended six or more counseling sessions reported more positive perceived change in their levels of depression, anxiety, and stress than did students who attended five or fewer counseling sessions. Most students reported that they would not attend counseling due to not having enough time and suggested online or weekend sessions. Finally, students stated that they predominantly learned about services from advertisement.
KEYWORDS: Counseling; College Students; Depression; Homesickness; Anxiety; Stress; Mood; Academic Performance
p.61 Underneath it All: Soil Differences May Explain Contrasting Outcomes of Adjacent Prairie Restorations in Madison, Wisconsin
Krista Marshall, Nick J. Balster, & Alex W. Bajcz
ABSTRACT: The evaluation of prairie restorations tends to focus on aboveground properties such as changes in plant diversity and the encroachment of non-native species. As a result, knowledge gaps persist concerning belowground controls of restoration success. To address these gaps at a 13-year-old prairie restoration site in Madison, Wisconsin, we spatially compared soil chemical, physical, and hydrological properties in two adjacent parcels that differed markedly in response to a tallgrass prairie restoration. We hypothesized that soil properties and their heterogeneity would differ significantly between the two parcels and that these differences would help explain the divergent response. In support of this hypothesis, soil organic matter, pH, and total nitrogen were significantly lower (p = 0.007, p < 0.001, and p = 0.006, respectively) in the restored parcel compared to the parcel that has yet to respond to any restoration efforts. Moreover, despite no significant difference in soil average bulk density between the two parcels, the restored parcel had significantly lower sand and silt fractions overall (p = 0.039 and p = 0.040, respectively). In contrast, except for total nitrogen, there were no apparent differences in the spatial heterogeneity of the measured soil properties between the restored and unrestored parcels, which did not support the second hypothesis of this study. These results demonstrate the utility of measuring belowground properties when assessing unexpected outcomes of prairie restorations as well as inform future hypothesis-driven experiments to determine which soil properties impede restoration and under what circumstances.
KEYWORDS: Prairie Restoration; Bulk Density; Soil Organic Matter; Soil Properties; Soil Texture; Spatial Heterogeneity
p.73 Selective Extraction of Red Phosphor (Y2O3:Eu3+) Constituents from Waste Fluorescent Lamps Phosphor Using Acid Leaching
Parul Johar, Vishal Jangir, Yogita Choudhary, & Sudhanshu Mallick
ABSTRACT: Modern fluorescent lamp phosphor powder contains tricolor phosphor. This tricolor phosphor consists of three different types of rare earth phosphors: red (YOX), green (CMAT/LAP) and blue (BAM); mixed in varying proportions. The exact separation of these three rare earth phosphors is essential in order to precisely recover the contained rare earth elements from waste lamps phosphor. In this present work, we reported an efficient methodology for the separation of these three tricolor phosphors and the selective extraction of predominantly presented red phosphor (YOX) constituents using acid leaching. The waste phosphor powder was leached with different acids: both organic and inorganic type. The 3 M H2SO4 leaching was found to be most suitable for the selective extraction of red phosphor constituents, i.e. Y and Eu. The recovered phosphor powder was analyzed with SEM/EDS and XRD analysis. The obtained XRD pattern was refined using Rietveld refinement method for the quantification of phases present. Recovered red phosphor powder contained three main crystalline phases Y2O3, Eu2O3 and Y2OS2.
KEYWORDS: Waste Lamp Phosphor; Tricolor Phosphor; Rare Earth Elements; Acid Leaching