Volume 1 Issue 1 June 2002

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DOI for AJUR‘s Volume 1, Issue 1 is https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.001

AJUR: The American Journal of Undergraduate Research

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.002

Author(s):

C.C. Chancey

Affiliation:

American Journal of Undergraduate Research, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614-0150 USA


Guest Editorial

 A Passion for Science Education Reform and the Role of Undergraduate Research

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.003

Author(s):

Jeanne L. Narum

Affiliation:

Project Kaleidoscope, Independent Colleges Office, 1730 Rhode Island Avenue, Suite 803, Washington, DC 20036


Preparation and Characterization of Electrolessly Deposited Platimum and Palladium Nanoparticles on Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films on Silicon Substrates

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.004

Author(s):

Vivian L. Liang, Raymond Chan and Oliver Chyan

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 USA

ABSTRACT:

The effects of metal depositions on pyrolyzed photoresist films (PPF) grown on silicon substrates were investigated. A silicon chip, spin-coated with a positive photoresist was pyrolyzed through heating to form a PPF, or a conductive carbon film. For increasing periods of time, nanometersized metal particles of platinum and palladium were spontaneously deposited on conductive carbon films by immersion in solutions of 0.049% HF containing 100 ppm, 200 ppm, and 500 ppm concentrations of metal ions Pt2+ or Pd2+. Following each hour of deposition, the electrochemical behavior of the metal-deposited carbon films were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, utilizing a 0.1 M H2SO4 electrolyte system. The electron-transfer rates and characteristics of hydrogen evolution exhibited positive catalytic effects when the platinum and palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon films. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis were employed to characterize the surface morphology and distribution of metal nanoparticles on the PPF surface based on metal ion concentration and deposition time. The depositions of metal nanoparticles accelerate the electron transfer process, which could improve the efficiency and performance of PPF electrodes in the production of hydrogen fuel.

About the Author(s):

Vivian L. Liang attended Jasper High School before entering the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS) in August 2000. She worked in the laboratory of Oliver Chyan, an associate professor of chemistry at the University of North Texas, with the assistance of Raymond Chan, a chemistry graduate student at UNT. Vivian’s research involved depositing platinum and palladium onto carbon films that form a protective layer on silicon wafers. She then tested the difference in electronic transfer rates of the wafers with the metals and without the metals. The metals caused the electrochemical process to speed up and so could be used for more efficient batteries, capacitors and electrochemical sensors, she says. Vivian plans to finish her bachelor’s degree at the University of Texas at Austin after graduating from TAMS in May 2002. She plans to major in electrical engineering.


Predicted Effects of Confinement on the Melting Transition in Krypton-Argon Adlayers

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.005

Author(s):

K. Bader, M.W. Roth

Affiliation:

Physics Department, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614-0150 USA

ABSTRACT:

We report the results of (N,ρ,T) Molecular-Dynamics computer simulations of krypton-argon mixtures physisorbed between two graphite sheets. Three novel aspects of the system’s behavior emerge from this study. To begin with, new high-temperature commensurate solid phases for both argon and krypton as a result of confinement are predicted, as well as a family of confinement-induced solid-liquid phase transitions. In addition, we observe that the melting temperature of the system can be adjusted within a given range by the graphite sheet spacing. Finally, in the case of argon-krypton mixtures, certain temperatures and sheet spacings result in almost complete impurity extraction.

About the Author(s)

Karson Bader was a sophomore physics major at the University of Northern Iowa when he completed the research presented in this issue. Dr. Michael Roth, an assistant professor of physics at UNI, supervised his research project. Karson is presently majoring in physics at the University of California at Riverside, in Riverside, California, USA.


Deploying Artificial Intelligence Techniques In Software Engineering

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.006

Author(s):

Jonathan Onowakpo Goddey Ebbah

Affiliation:

Department of Computer Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

ABSTRACT:

Software development is a very complex process that, at present, is primarily a human activity. Programming, in software development, requires the use of different types of knowledge: about the problem domain and the programming domain. It also requires many different steps in combining these types of knowledge into one final solution. This paper intends to review the techniques developed in artificial intelligence (AI) from the standpoint of their application in software engineering. In particular, it focuses on techniques developed (or that are being developed) in artificial intelligence that can be deployed in solving problems associated with software engineering processes.

About the Author(s):

Jonathan Onowakpo Goddey Ebbah is a 4th year student completing his B.Sc. in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Ibadan in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. He currently holds a scholarship awarded by the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria, and he hopes to continue his education abroad after he graduates. Dr. B.A. Oluwade and Dr. B.A. Akinkunmi assisted him in his research.


Synthesis and Reactions of Pyridinylcalcium Bromides

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.007

Author(s):

Lara Pryor and Anthony Kiessling

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, Wilkes University, PO Box 111, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania 18766 USA

ABSTRACT:

Pyridinylcalcium bromide was synthesized by reacting activated calcium with 3-bromopyridine. Since the pyridinylcalcium bromide would be difficult to isolate, the compound were trapped by acetone in Grignard-like reactions. The subsequent products were identified by GC/MS to confirm the synthesis of the pyridinylcalcium bromide.

About the Author(s):

Lara Pryor graduated from Wilkes University in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 2001 with a degree in chemistry. She did her research under the supervision of Dr. Anthony J. Kiessling, an assistant professor of chemistry at Wilkes. She is currently a graduate student in the Department of Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.


Chemical Compositions of African Trade Bracelets (Manillas) via Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2002.008

Author(s):

Mike Kuntz, Jennifer Ferguson, Vincent Iduma, Renee Kuzava, and Mark Benvenuto

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Detroit Mercy, 4001 W. McNichols Road, Detroit, Michigan 48219-0900 USA

ABSTRACT:

Sixteen small, west African trade bracelets called manillas, and one large, African trade bracelet referred to as a king manilla based on its size, were analyzed via energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and compared for the following elements: copper, zinc, tin, lead, antimony, and arsenic. The composition of the bracelets varied widely in the amount of lead present, especially when compared to the official amounts of lead allowed by the various manufacturing concerns. The king manilla showed a markedly different chemistry than the sixteen smaller manillas, consistent with the belief such large manillas were not manufactured in the same location as the small.

About the Author(s):

Jennifer Ferguson did her research under the direction of Dr. Mark A. Benvenuto, in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Detroit Mercy, in Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Vincent Iduma is a student at Cass Tech in Detroit who did his research with Dr. Mark A. Benvenuto during Summer 2001 as part of research supported by Project Seed of the American Chemical Society. The research was performed in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Mike Kuntz is a student in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Detroit Mercy. He did his research under the direction of Dr. Mark A. Benvenuto of the University of Detroit Mercy’s Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
Renee Kuzava performed her research in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Detroit Mercy, under the direction of Dr. Mark A. Benvenuto.