Volume 10 Issue 3 December 2011

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https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2011.016

Editorial: The Lessons of Pittsburgh

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2011.017

Author(s):

C. C. Chancey

Affiliation:

University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614-0150 USA


The ERC Mechanism and the Formation of Abnormal Product in the Stevens Rearrangement

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2011.018

Author(s):

Soumendranath Bhakat

Affiliation:

Nutanpalli, P.O. Suri, Dist. Birbhum, West Bengal, Pin: 731101 INDIA

ABSTRACT:

To explain the new abnormal product of the Stevens Rearrangement which is not explainable by different existing mechanisms like “radical pair mechanism”; “ionic pair mechanism”, I proposed a new mechanism scheme entitled the ERC (Elimination Recombination Coupling) mechanism and a new abnormal product of the Stevens Rearrangement. This mechanism also maintains parity between the “radical pair mechanism” and the “ionic pair mechanism.


Physiological Versus Perceived Foot Temperature, and Perceived Comfort, during Treadmill Running in Shoes and Socks of Various Constructions

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2011.019

Author(s):

Rachel M. Barkley, Mike R. Bumgarner, and Erin M. Poss (Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Program)

David S. Senchina (Biology Department)

Affiliation:

Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 USA

ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether people could accurately perceive physiological foot temperature during brief bouts of treadmill running in different combinations of shoe and sock models, and also how perception of comfort was influenced. Sixteen young adult males (21.3  0.8 years, 181.8  1 cm, 74.6  1.5 kg) participated in two separate studies where they alternated running and resting for 10 min each with temperature probes attached at two sites on the lateral dorsal aspect of the right foot. Subjects reported perceptions of foot comfort and temperature after each run using 10 cm visual analogue scales. In the first experiment, different sock models were tested with the same shoe model; in the second experiment, different shoe models were tested with the same sock model. Foot temperature did not differ statistically as a function of shoe or sock model in either experiment. Subjects did not perceive any difference in foot temperature in the shoe experiment, but perceived their foot as being cooler when wearing either a polyester sock or a calf compression sleeve and more comfortable when wearing shoes with less mass. Taken together, the results suggest that subjects’ perceptions of foot temperature may not coincide with physiological foot temperature and are more strongly influenced by sock characteristics than shoe characteristics. Further, shoe mass (but not sock fiber weave or composition) may impact comfort perception by subjects.


Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Northern Pike from the Missouri River

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2011.020

Author(s):

Jennifer Even and Shahrokh Ghaffari

Affiliation:

Ohio University-Zanesville, Zanesville, Ohio 43701 USA

ABSTRACT:

Lead and cadmium are trace metals which accumulate in the body and are extremely toxic in living organisms. The purpose of this study was to find organ(s) with the greatest concentrations of these elements. In this study liver, gill, intestines, and kidney of five samples of Northern Pikes were analyzed. After the organs were dried and digested using nitric acid the anodic stripping voltammetry method was employed to analyze this samples. This method was used for its low detection limit of 10-9 to 10-10 M. However, no trace of either lead or cadmium was found in all 60 samples analyzed. Lack of detectable amount of both lead and cadmium is attribute to; first, Northern Pikes are not bottom dweller and thus would not be highly exposed to sediments that most commonly contain trace metals, second, the absence of a major industry which typically produces these contaminates in this area.


Conic Sections in the Double-Slit Experiment

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2011.021

Author(s):

Joe Hughes and Frederic Liebrand

Affiliation:

Walla Walla University, 204 S. College Avenue, College Place, Washington 99324 USA

ABSTRACT:

The use of conic sections in obtaining the locations of double-slit maxima is absent in many undergraduate treatments [1-3]. However, their inclusion is not conceptually difficult and increases the understanding not only of interference phenomena, but also of the underlying geometry. This paper illustrates how elliptic and hyperbolic conic sections arise naturally in a conceptual analysis of the double slit.