Volume 2 Issue 2 September 2003

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https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2003.014

How Should an Undergraduate Research Journal Be Different?

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2003.015

Author(s):

C.C. Chancey

Affiliation:

American Journal of Undergraduate Research, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614-0150 USA


Three-Minute Herbal Treatment to Reduce Dental Caries with a Newbouldia laevis Based Extract

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2003.016

Author(s):

Amaechina Okechukwu Okeke

Affiliation:

Department of Botany, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria

ABSTRACT:

An extract made from leaves of the tree Newbouldia laevis was tested as a bactericide for the bacteria implicated in dental caries. Thirty toothache patients used the extract as a mouthwash and the mouthwash’s bactericidal action was tested under laboratory conditions. Bacterial action was arrested in 25 of the 30 patients.


The Relationship of Apis mellifera with Exotic and Native Plants in Boulder County, Colorado

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2003.017

Author(s):

Kira Krend and Christina Murphy

Affiliation:

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 USA

ABSTRACT:

Since honeybees (Apis mellifera) were introduced to North America in the 1600’s, their influence has been profound and widespread. As pollinators, honeybees are extremely valuable economically and are vital to crop pollination. However, their presence has affected native ecosystems, including the plains ecosystem in Colorado. Using recruitment and other unique foraging characteristics, honeybees may be out-competing native pollinators for nectar and pollen resources. Our study was designed to determine if A. mellifera has a preference for exotic or native plants. We observed patches of exotic plants and patches of native plants and recorded the type of bee (exotic or native) that visited each flowering head. We also examined data from Kearns and Oliveras (unpublished), which illustrates that invasive plant species are also popular with native bees, and may draw vital pollinators away from native plants. Our results indicate that honeybees prefer to visit exotic invasive plant species to native plants. Consequently, honeybees may contribute to the spread of exotic plant species and the decline of native plant species, reducing biodiversity. Thus, native plants are doubly jeopardized. The invasion of exotic flora and fauna into native ecosystems on the plains of Colorado is part of a worldwide phenomenon of species invasion, and researchers must continue to investigate interspecies relationships to minimize the potential negative effects of invasive species.


Physiological and Behavioral Effects of d-threo-methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Male Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2003.018

Author(s):

Jennifer Lee Sayler, Linda Tennison, and David Mitchell

Affiliation:

College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University, St. Joseph, Minnesota 56374 USA

ABSTRACT:

Millions of children and adults worldwide are diagnosed with Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and yet its very existence, definition, and treatment are surrounded with discord and controversy. ADHD and its treatments are brought together through this investigation into the effects that drug therapy has on Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and a strain of Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR) selectively inbred from WKY rats. The effects of the drug d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH – the d-isomer of the ADHD drug Ritalin) on spatial working memory abilities, overall growth rate, blood glucose levels, blood pH, and erythrocyte membrane lipids were examined in the two rat strains. Although all four physiological properties remained constant and normal over the course of the experiment, the spatial working memory abilities were inhibited in WKY rats receiving the drug. These results suggest that the d-isomer of this drug may have a significant impact on cognitive function in rats and possibly humans.


The “Arousal Effect”: An Alternative Interpretation of the Mozart Effect

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2003.019

Author(s):

Melecio Gonzalez Jr., Glenn E. Smith IV, David W. Stockwell, and Robert S. Horton

Affiliation:

Wabash College, 301 W. Wabash Ave., Crawfordsville, Indiana 47933 USA

ABSTRACT:

Previous research suggests that listening to Mozart’s music enhances performance on subsequent tests of spatial ability. One explanation for this result is that Mozart’s music produces a positive arousal state that increases alertness and thus, enhances spatial performance. In this study, we sampled elementary students in order to investigate (1) the presence of the Mozart effect and (2) the possibility that the Mozart effect can be explained by increased levels of arousal. We assigned participants randomly to (1) listen to Mozart (Mozart group), (2) play active games (active group), or (3) sit in silence (control group) prior to completing a spatial abilities task. We expected that (1) both the Mozart and active groups would perform better on the spatial test than the control group and (2) the active group would perform better on the spatial test than the Mozart group. Pre-planned orthogonal contrasts revealed that the Mozart and active groups outperformed the control group but the Mozart and active groups performed similarly. Implications of these data for understanding the Mozart effect and for improving grade school education are discussed.