Volume 6 Issue 3 December 2007

0
0

0
0
0

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2007.016

Editorial: On the Cutting Edge — New Areas of Undergraduate Research

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2007.017

Author(s):

C. C. Chancey

Affiliation:

American Journal of Undergraduate Research, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614-0150 USA


Using Meiobenthic Species as a Measure of the Impact of Acid Mine Outflows on the Tioga River in North Central Pennsylvania

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2007.018

Author(s):

Carissa Ganong and Gregory Carson, Department of Chemistry and Physics

John Kirby, Department of Biology

Affiliation:

Mansfield University, Mansfield, Pennsylvania 16933 USA

ABSTRACT:

In this study meiobenthic communities were sampled from several acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted sites along the Tioga River in North Central Pennsylvania. Concentrations of several chemical indicators of aquatic health (Fe+2/Fe+3, Mn+2, and SO4-2) were measured along with the pH. Meiobenthic communities were present at all AMD impacted locations but diversity and abundance varied. The diversity and abundance at the AMD impacted sites was inversely related to the concentration of several key acid mine drainage indicators. Macroinvertebrate species were collected only at the unimpacted head waters of the Tioga River. All other sampled locations were devoid of macroinvertebrate species.


Studies of E. coli and Coliform Bacteria Contamination in Mussels (Geukensia demissa) Collected from Guion Creek and Its Correlation to Water Flow Rate

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2007.019

Author(s):

Pretima G. Persad and Anna K. Yeung-Cheung

Affiliation:

Department of Biology, Manhattanville College, Purchase, New York 10577 USA

ABSTRACT:

Ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from a highly contaminated Guion Creek, Mamaroneck Harbor, NY and were compared with Harbor Island Park and Shore Acres Beach, for amounts of bacteria. Mussels were also collected from a pristine beach, Read Sanctuary, Rye. The water flow rate was measured at all sites. The results showed that the amount of E. coli and coliform bacteria recovered from mussels were significantly higher in Guion Creek and its water flow rate was significantly lower when compared to three other sites. On the contrary, the highest water flow rate and lowest amounts of bacteria were recovered from mussels collected at Read Sanctuary. A negative correlation of water flow rate with amounts of E. coli and coliform recovered from mussels at all sites was found. Results suggested that a slow water flow rate in Guion Creek might be one of the contributing factors to the high bacterial loads.


Extraction, Identification, and Quantification of Harmala Alkaloids in Three Species of Passiflora

https://doi.org/10.33697/ajur.2007.020

Author(s):

Abigail Frye and Catherine Haustein

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, Central College, 812 University, Pella, Iowa 50219 USA

ABSTRACT:

Harmala alkaloids are a common plant extract with a number of reported uses including as stimulants and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Their reported activity has led some researchers to identify them as the principal active constituent in passion flowers, an abundant plant which has been identified to have a number of pharmaceutical uses of its own. Harmalas are commonly extracted using chloroform; however, in this case, a green extraction process using ethyl acetate and sodium bicarbonate was applied. Analysis of the harmala alkaloids in Passiflora caerulea, Passiflora incarnata and Passiflora “Coral Glow” was performed quantitatively using the HPLC. Comparison of HPLC results from plant extracts to results from standard solutions concluded that harmol and harmine were present in minor amounts in Passiflora incarnata, harmine was present in large amounts in Passiflora caerulea, and no significant amounts of harmala alkaloids were found in Passiflora “Coral Glow”. The extraction process and HPLC analysis also revealed the presence of the flavonoid derivative Vitexin in Passiflora incarnata. Vitexin was present in relatively large amounts, and as a flavonoid derivative, the compound may have powerful antioxidant activity.